Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication


“Actions speak louder than words.”



Nonverbal communication can be defined

as “vocal and non-vocal messages

expressed in other than

linguistic means.” Adler.

It is sending messages without using Language 








Four Kinds of Human Communication:






It involves coordination between the two

hemispheres of the brain.

Robert Spurry. Split Brain Theory.

Left side
Right side

Watch the ballerina spin



Points to consider:

1. Nonverbal messages are

strongly influence by culture.

2. You cannot avoid communicating



65 % of all meaning in a face to face

setting is nonverbal.

3. Nonverbal communication

transmits information primarily about

emotions, emotional intensity and



 4. Nonverbal meaning is ambiguous.

Depends on context and culture

5. Effective nonverbal communication will

be congruent — or consistent with verbal

in most cases.





Seven nonverbal Communication Codes.

Humans are multi coders — we use many codes to
express ourselves.

1. Kinesics using your body to



Gestures, Facial Expressions, and

Eye Contact


Hand gestures

emphasize words and emotions and can help illustrate
what you are saying.

Gestures may even replace verbal
messages altogether.

Be careful on hand gestures “Hand Jive”

Three Types of hand gestures

1. Emblem the small class of nonverbal acts that can be accurately translated into words

Example: handshake, shaking a fist at someone, a smile, a frown

  1. Illustrator – very much a part of speech and serves the function of emphasis

Example: head and hand movements that occur more frequently with primary stressed words, pointing gestures, other movements that draw a clear picture f the linguistic reference.

  1. Regulator – acts that help to initiate and terminate the speech of participants in a social situation

Example: regulators might suggest that the speaker keep talking, clarify, or hurry up and finish


Facial Expressions

14,000 different meaning can be expressed with the face.

Taster’s Choice

Affect Displaysbasic emotions

(fear, degust, grief, happiness,

joy, hatred, anger)

Only nonverbal code that seems to transcend cultures.

facial expression affect diplays

Facial expression photos

see photos of facially indicated emotions

Importance of a Smile page

Eye Contact

“The only exposed portion of the brain.”

Alluring eyes

courtship stare

Attracting women tips:



2. Proxemics

— using space to communicate.

Know that Distance sends emotional messages.

In the mid 1950s anthropologist E. T. Hall wrote

The Hidden Dimension”  and coined the term

Hall defined proxemics as,

“the study of how man unconsciously structures
microspace – the distance between men in the conduct of
daily transactions, the organization of space in his
houses and buildings, and ultimately the layout of his

Kinds of Distance

Public — 12 feet or more

Social — 4 to 12 feet

Personal — 1.5 to 4 feet

Intimate — 0 to 1.5 feet

Friends skit

Boundary of personal speech

3. Paralingustics

using voice to communicate.

Tone of voice. Changes in Pitch levels send
emotional messages.

Pitch is where you voice falls on a musical scale — the voice has an
affect like music.



Pauses and silence

Vocal variety

“It’s not what you say but how you say it.”


4. Haptics

— touching behavior.

Greetings in different countries

Free hugs


5. Chronemics

— using time to communicate.



6. Personal artifacts

— personal objects or grooming used to

influence self presentation.

Clothing, Jewelry, tattoos, hair style,
furniture, cars.

Formal vs informal dress

More formal vs informal attire

Hair the Musical



Evaluating Nonverbal cues in “Friends” — 5 minute video

















7.  Environmental factors

elements in the physical setting

influence our definition of the situation.

Architecture, interior design, neatness
and order, color, temperature



8. Physical characteristics.


Body type, skin color, ethnic and racial

characteristic, height and

— send stereotyped, cultural
determined messages that
people respond to without thinking.


Body Image:

Body image is a person’s perceptionof his or her
physical appearance. A person with a poor body image will perceive his
or her own body as being unattractive or even repulsive to others, while
a person with a good body image will see him or herself as attractive to
others, or will at least accept his or her body in its current form.


Three Body Types





  • Definitive “Hard Gainer”

  • Delicate Built Body
  • Flat

  • Fragile
  • Lean

  • Lightly Muscled
  • Small
  • Takes
    Longer to Gain Muscle
  • Thin

Famous Ectomorphs

Lisa Kudrow, Kate Moss, Brad Pitt, Seth
Green, Edward Norton.





  • Athletic
  • Hard

  • Hourglass Shaped (Female)

  • Rectangular Shaped (Male)

  • Muscular Body

  • Excellent Posture
  • Gains
    Muscle Easily
  • Gains
    Fat More Easily Than Ectomorphs
  • Thick

    Famous Mesomorphs

Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone,
Arnold Schwarzenegger


The naturally large person characterized with a
round face, wide hips, big bones, slow metabolism
and high number of fat cells.


  • Soft Body

  • Underdeveloped Muscles

  • Round Physique

  • Weight Loss is Difficult

  • Gains Muscle Easily Like the

Famous Endomorphs

John Goodman, Roseanne, Jack



Race and Discrimination