Nonverbal communication can be defined
as “vocal and non-vocal messages
expressed in other than
linguistic means.” Adler.
It is sending messages without using Language
Four Kinds of Human Communication:
It involves coordination between the two
hemispheres of the brain.
Points to consider:
1. Nonverbal messages are
strongly influence by culture.
2. You cannot avoid communicating
65 % of all meaning in a face to face
setting is nonverbal.
3. Nonverbal communication
transmits information primarily about
emotions, emotional intensity and
4. Nonverbal meaning is ambiguous.
Depends on context and culture
5. Effective nonverbal communication will
be congruent — or consistent with verbal
in most cases.
Seven nonverbal Communication Codes.
Humans are multi coders — we use many codes to
1. Kinesics — using your body to
Gestures, Facial Expressions, and
emphasize words and emotions and can help illustrate
what you are saying.
Gestures may even replace verbal
Be careful on hand gestures “Hand Jive”
Three Types of hand gestures
1. Emblem – the small class of nonverbal acts that can be accurately translated into words
Example: handshake, shaking a fist at someone, a smile, a frown
- Illustrator – very much a part of speech and serves the function of emphasis
Example: head and hand movements that occur more frequently with primary stressed words, pointing gestures, other movements that draw a clear picture f the linguistic reference.
- Regulator – acts that help to initiate and terminate the speech of participants in a social situation
Example: regulators might suggest that the speaker keep talking, clarify, or hurry up and finish
14,000 different meaning can be expressed with the face.
Affect Displays — basic emotions
(fear, degust, grief, happiness,
joy, hatred, anger)
Only nonverbal code that seems to transcend cultures.
“The only exposed portion of the brain.”
— using space to communicate.
Know that Distance sends emotional messages.
“the study of how man unconsciously structures
microspace – the distance between men in the conduct of
daily transactions, the organization of space in his
houses and buildings, and ultimately the layout of his
Kinds of Distance
Public — 12 feet or more
Social — 4 to 12 feet
Personal — 1.5 to 4 feet
Intimate — 0 to 1.5 feet
3. Paralingustics —
using voice to communicate.
Tone of voice. Changes in Pitch levels send
Pitch is where you voice falls on a musical scale — the voice has an
affect like music.
Pauses and silence
“It’s not what you say but how you say it.”
— touching behavior.
— using time to communicate.
6. Personal artifacts
— personal objects or grooming used to
influence self presentation.
Clothing, Jewelry, tattoos, hair style,
7. Environmental factors
elements in the physical setting that
influence our definition of the situation.
Architecture, interior design, neatness
and order, color, temperature
8. Physical characteristics.
Body type, skin color, ethnic and racial
characteristic, height and
— send stereotyped, cultural
determined messages that
people respond to without thinking.
Body image is a person’s perceptionof his or her
physical appearance. A person with a poor body image will perceive his
or her own body as being unattractive or even repulsive to others, while
a person with a good body image will see him or herself as attractive to
others, or will at least accept his or her body in its current form.
Three Body Types
Definitive “Hard Gainer”
Delicate Built Body
Longer to Gain Muscle
Lisa Kudrow, Kate Moss, Brad Pitt, Seth
Green, Edward Norton.
Hourglass Shaped (Female)
Rectangular Shaped (Male)
Fat More Easily Than Ectomorphs
Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone,
The naturally large person characterized with a
round face, wide hips, big bones, slow metabolism
and high number of fat cells.
Race and Discrimination